Lloyd Kramer’s interests focus on Modern European History with an emphasis on nineteenth-century France and French-American cultural relations. He is particularly interested in historical processes that shape personal and collective identities, including the experiences of cross-cultural exchange and the emergence of modern nationalism. Other research and teaching interests deal with the roles of intellectuals in modern societies and the theoretical foundations of historical knowledge. His teaching stresses the pleasures of reading, discussing and writing about influential books in various eras of European and world history.