Rally around the Flag! Leaders’ calls to action on behalf of the nation has led to common action against invasion, disaster, and disease. The same exhortation has preceded aggression, exclusion, and hostility. How have people defined their collective identities? What roles do borders have in separating–and creating–nations? What kinds of other identities motivate people, and why do we assume it is nationalism that dominates history? We will use a variety of historical sources to analyze the ways collective identities have defined the past.