This seminar explores the problem of revolutionary upheaval in Latin American history. Why did people like Simón Bolívar, Pancho Villa, Che Guevara, and Fidel Castro take up arms, and what has been the impact of the insurgencies they helped lead? This explores these and other questions by examining the various causes, manifestations, and outcomes of revolutionary violence in modern Latin American history. Students will develop their interpretive skills through a close reading of English-language primary sources from the wars of the independence to the guerrilla insurgencies of the late-20th century. The seminar begins with an exploration of the wars of independence (1810-1825). Students will then analyze the twentieth-century revolutions in Mexico (1910-1917), Cuba (1953-1959), and Nicaragua (1979). The course concludes with an exploration of the late-20th century guerrilla insurgencies of the Shining Path (Peru), FARC (Colombia), and Zapatistas (Mexico).